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Description    UNFORMATTED ATTACHMENT PREVIEW Question1: What is the net energy yield for produc ...


Description    UNFORMATTED ATTACHMENT PREVIEW Question1: What is the net energy yield for producing oil in 1954? Enter your answer here: ________ What is the net energy yield for producing oil in 2007? Enter your answer here: _______ According to these calculations, the net energy yield for conventional oil has A: decreased, B: remained the same, C: increased over time. As a result of these changes in net energy yield, oil companies have been trying to augment supplies of conventional oil with heavy oils: tar sands and shale oil. Differentiate between the sources and net energy yields of these three types of oil by completing the following table using the dropdown menus provided. Source of Oil is found as petroleum between the pores and cracks of underground rock, what is Oil type? A: Shale oil B: Conventional oil Oil type is Tar sands, what is source of oil? A: Converted from bitumen, which is found in and extracted from sandstone rock B: Converted from Kerogen, which is found in and extracted from sandstone rock Oil type is Tar sands, what is Net Energy Yield? A: Low B: Medium C: High Net Energy Yield is low, what is Oil type? A: Shale oil B: Conventional oil Net Energy Yield is low, what is Source of oil? A: Converted from bitumen, which is found in and extracted from shale rock B: Converted from kerogen, which is found in and extracted from shale rock Question2: Natural gas is widely used as a fuel to cook food and provide heat in homes, to produce electricity in power plants, and to help transport us in cars and trucks. Natural gas has often been collected above conventional oil deposits, but the popularity of collecting this gas using hydraulic fracturing has increased in recent years, particularly in the United States. However, the growing use of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, has raised environmental concerns, spurring numerous debates and protests across the United States. Proponents of this technique argue that the United States should expand its natural gas production by fracking significantly more shale deposits across the country. They believe that since the world’s proven oil reserves are A: increasing, B: decreasing rapidly, this will increase demand for other sources of energy, such as natural gas. In addition, they argue that fracking more shale deposits across the country will help A: increase, B: decrease natural gas prices for U.S. consumers and boost local economies by creating A: fewer, B: more job opportunities. once natural gas is drawn back up the well to the surface, it is processed, refined, and shipped to market. Ideally, natural gas can be pumped directly into pipelines for distribution. If direct pipelines are not available, however, natural gas can be stored in tanks as A: liquefied natural gas(LNG), B: liquefied petroleum gas(LPG) or transported across oceans as A: liquefied natural gas(LNG), B: liquefied petroleum gas(LPG) What additional impacts can the shipment of natural gas to market have on the environment? A: Increased net energy yield from additional processing of LNG from natural gas refineries B: Increased water pollution from the preparation and transportation of LNG As long as it is not extracted through fracking, natural gas is actually considered to be the A: cleanest, B: dirtiest of all the fossil fuels, as it emits 30%–50% less greenhouse gases into the atmosphere than other fossil fuels. Although there are benefits of increasing natural gas production through fracking, these benefits come at a high cost to the environment. Currently, the natural gas industry is seeking governmental permits to frack more shale deposits around the country. At the same time, many citizens around the country are fighting for an all-out ban on hydraulic fracturing. For the existing sites where fracking is allowed in the United States, what should you encourage the government and natural gas companies to do to minimize the negative effects of this technique? Check all that apply A: Do not allow the natural gas industry to be exempt from regulations protecting water and land B: Ensure wastewater gets recycled instead of being stored in disposal wells C: To save time and money, only require testing for chemical contamination in drinking water before fracking operations start Question3: In the United States, nonrenewable energy resources provide 92% of our commercial energy—energy that is bought and sold on the market for heating, cooking, transportation, and production of other goods and services that enable Americans to live comfortably. The following graphic shows the proven reserves for coal, natural gas, and oil in the world. From this information and what you know about our energy use, it is clear that the United States, located in North America, A: is independent of, B: relies heavily on international reserves for its energy consumption. For example, 65% of the United States’ energy comes from oil and natural gas. Although North America holds A: 15%, B: 28%, C: 5% of the world’s oil reserves and 5% of the world’s natural gas reserves, these resources are overwhelmingly found in A: Africa, B: the Middle East, C: Eurasia Fortunately, this dependence on other countries for energy is not as crucial with respect to coal reserves. That is, although Asia and Oceania lead the amount of coal reserves in the world, North America holds almost A: one-third, B: one-fifth, C: one-half of the world’s coal reserves, followed very closely by A: Europe, B: the Middle East, C: Eurasia A solid fossil fuel formed from A: petrochemicals, B: ancient plant material, , coal is considered to be the A: least, B: most, environmentally harmful fossil fuel in use today. The accompanying photo illustrates one result of burning coal: The large amounts of A: carbon dioxide, B: CH? being emitted into the atmosphere, which are three to five times higher than emissions created by any other fossil fuel. With such high A: greenhouse gas, B: petrochemical, C: natural gas emissions, relying on coal as an energy resource in the future will only advance the effects of A: climate change, B: nuclear fission The government has the power to pass laws to help regulate and control the harmful impacts of coal mining and coal use on the environment. Which of the following actions could a government take to help minimize the detrimental effects of coal? Check all that apply. A: Classify CO? as a pollutant that could be regulated by the EPA. B: Make efforts to phase out fossil fuel use by shifting to renewable energy sources. C: Enforce stricter emissions standards from coal-burning power plants. Question4: When the entire nuclear fuel cycle is evaluated, the main benefit of nuclear power seems to be its lower A: carbon dioxide emissions, B: environmental impact compared with fossil fuels. In general, nuclear power’s disadvantages can be seen to outweigh this benefit because of its low net energy yield, its high overall cost, and its A: recycling, B: production of harmful radioactive wastes. At the 1,2,3 of this cycle, it can take more than 10 years to find, A: enrich, B: mine. A: enrich, B: mine , and assemble uranium before it can even be transported and used as fuel in a reactor. At the 4,5, the reactor core houses the fuel rods, which are used to A: generate electricity, B: absorb neutrons , and the control rods, which are used to A: absorb neutrons, B: generate electricity . However, this process is inefficient, as it only produces about 25% of useful electrical energy from this nuclear fuel. After three to four years, these rods are considered A: useless, B: refined and are temporarily stored in water-filled pools for cooling. At the 6,7,8, it can take up to 60 years before spent fuel rods are reprocessed to remove radioactive wastes and/or transported to dry casks for temporary storage. From mining uranium to storing spent fuel in dry casks, the nuclear fuel cycle can span more than 70 years. The long-term goal, however, is to geologically dispose of and store these nuclear wastes safely for at least A: 10,000, B: 10, C: 100, D: 1,000 years to ensure safety for future generations. Unfortunately, there is currently no facility that has been built and tested for this type of storage anywhere in the world. It is also estimated that over 300 older, worn-out nuclear plants will have to be decommissioned as this century progresses forward with nuclear power. Including this step in the nuclear fuel cycle A: only decreases, B: helps stabilize, C: only increases the overall costs of nuclear power. Why? A: More time and energy will be needed to dismantle a nuclear power plant. B: Overall cost of the nuclear fuel cycle only includes plant operations and not the front end or back end of the cycle. Question5: In the United States, more than $10.4 billion has been spent on the preliminary development of a site at the Yucca Mountain desert region in Nevada that could potentially store nuclear wastes safely in the long term. Political, economic, and environmental controversy over this site as a nuclear waste storage facility has been brewing for over 20 years and continues today. Read the following article and answer the questions that follow. WASHINGTON—Congress for the second consecutive year is zeroing out spending for the Yucca Mountain project, the nuclear waste plant that continues to recede as government policy. A catch-all 2012 spending bill that passed the House on Friday contained no funding for the Nevada repository site, which is shrinking in the rear-view mirror as lawmakers prepare to review new recommendations for managing highly radioactive used nuclear fuel. “Once again, Congress will not appropriate a single dime to make Nevada the nation’s dumping ground for nuclear waste,” said Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, Democrat-Nevada. “Yucca Mountain was never a good idea, and it’s time to move on towards real solutions that ensure Americans’ health and safety,” Reid said. Reid was said to have used his influence to block the latest efforts by Republicans and some Democrats to resurrect the Yucca project, which the Obama administration terminated in 2009. The lawmakers represent districts that are home to commercial nuclear power plants where spent fuel is kept in pools and above-ground casks and home to government reservations where millions of gallons of Cold War nuclear remnants are stored. They charge the administration acted illegally to end the project without permission from Congress and in a move to curry favor with Reid. Representative John Shimkus, an Illinois Republican who advocated restarting the Yucca project, was disappointed by the outcome of the budget talks, a spokesman said. Shimkus, who delivered weekly House speeches this fall challenging senators to stand up to Reid, “will continue to support Yucca Mountain through personal efforts and by trying to show support by a majority,” the spokesman said. The action keeps the nation’s nuclear waste policy in limbo at least until a commission formed by the Obama administration issues its recommendations on alternatives to Yucca Mountain. Its report is due late January. Earlier this month, a group of key senators who work on energy policies confirmed they have agreed to work on post-Yucca legislation for short-term and long-term nuclear waste storage. The findings of the commission would serve as a base. Senator Lamar Alexander, Republican-Tennessee, told Congressional Quarterly it is “urgently important we find a place to temporarily and permanently put the used fuel and not just stay stuck in an argument about Yucca Mountain.” According to the article, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (Democrat-Nevada) challenges the notion that nuclear waste could be buried and stored A: unsafely, B: safely at Yucca Mountain. Why might this be so? A: There is no guarantee that storage containers holding spent fuel rods would even be leak-free, thus creating the potential for radioactive contamination. B: The current way of storing spent fuel rods at power plants could save the country from disastrous power plant accidents, such as the one that occurred at the Fukushima plant in Japan. Representative John Shimkus (Republican-Illinois), whose state relies on nuclear power more than any other state, is a strong A: proponent of, B: opponent of burying and storing nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. Why might this be so? A: The current way of storing spent fuel rods at power plants could lead to disastrous power plant accidents, such as the one that occurred at the Fukushima plant in Japan. B: Storage containers holding spent fuel rods would be leak-free, thus potentially causing radioactive contamination. Suggested Method is Shooting radioactive wastes into space or into the sun, what is Source of Concern? A: Could disperse wastes over large areas if the earth’s surface B: Still requires long-term storage of leftover materials C: Could explode and melt down, releasing large amounts of radiation Suggested Method is S Set up full-time security for 30 to 100 years around decommissioned power plants , what is Source of Concern? A: Could disperse wastes over large areas if the earth’s surface B: Still requires long-term storage of leftover materials C: Could explode and melt down, releasing large amounts of radiation Suggested Method is Enclose decommissioned power plants in concrete and steelreinforced tombs, what is Source of Concern? A: Could disperse wastes over large areas if the earth’s surface B: Still requires long-term storage of leftover materials C: Could explode and melt down, releasing large amounts of radiation Question6: According to the graph, a little over A: 8%, B: 4%, C: 54% of the energy used by the United States is produced from biomass. This figure is A: significantly lower than, B: significantly higher than, C: comparable to that for any of the nonrenewable sources of energy. Of the five major renewable energy resources listed, wind energy, A: geothermal energy, B: hydropower, C: natural gas , and biomass are indirect forms of solar energy. Why is this so? A: They are all driven by the sun, wind, and water. B: They are not replenished on a human time scale. C: They are all driven by solar energy. A: Similar to, B: Unlike the United States, some countries around the world rely on renewable energy to provide most of their heat and electricity. For example, Costa Rica gets more than 95% of its electric power from renewable energy resources and Germany plans to get 80% of its electricity from renewable energy by 2050. Such reliance on renewable energy benefits human societies as well as the environment: It A: reduces, B: enhances air pollution, decreases water contamination, slows climate-change effects, creates jobs, and saves consumers money. With all these benefits, what may be stopping countries from transitioning to a more renewable energy–dominated society? A: Coal-fired power plants are more energy efficient. B: Funding for research and development of renewable energy resources have been too high. C: Prices for nonrenewable energy resources do not include the harmful environmental and human health costs of producing and using them. Question7: In Germany, the average day is cloudy. Therefore, you wouldn’t expect Germany to be an overwhelming leader in solar energy production, but it is. In 2009 alone, Germany installed 3,806 megawatts of solar energy capacity, almost eight times more than what the United States installed in 2008. More recently, China has taken the lead, with an annual increase of nearly 45,000 megawatts in 2018. Similar to other solar technologies, this A: photovoltaic cell technology, B: concentrated solar power technique, C: passive solar heating system, D: active solar heating system will require consistent access to sunlight to work effectively; it’s A: disadvantage, B: advantage, however, is that it has minimal to no direct emissions of carbon dioxide. One of the main reasons for Germany’s early leadership in solar technology is Germany’s Renewable Energy Sources Act, which passed in 2000. This act required electricity companies to buy a certain amount of electricity derived from renewable resources, such as solar energy, and to pay rates higher than retail value. Thus, as expected with A: no economic incentives, B: government support, C: this economic handicap, solar companies quickly became A: noncompetitive, B: competitive in the energy marketplace. Question8: Shifting the current economy, which is fueled primarily by nonrenewable energy resources, to one that is reliant on a mix of renewable energy resources will drastically reduce pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and biodiversity loss. In short, it will lead to a more sustainable energy future. Use the dropdown menus to match the following renewable energy resources with their associated methodologies. Methodology is Uses heat stored in the earth’s interior to heat and cool buildings, what is Renewable Energy Resource? A: Wind turbines B: Solid biomass C: Geothermal energy Methodology is Burns plant materials and animal wastes as fuel, what is Renewable Energy Resource? A: Wind turbines B: Solid biomass C: Geothermal energy Methodology is Uses wind potential to produce electricity, what is Renewable Energy Resource? A: Wind turbines B: Solid biomass C: Geothermal energy Advantage is Easy to build and expand on, what is Renewable Energy Resource? A: Solid biomass B: Wind turbine C: Geothermal energy Advantage is Easy to build and expand on, what is Disadvantage? A: Greatest source of power generally located close to cities B: Greatest source of power generally located far from cities Advantage is Moderate net energy ratio, what is Renewable Energy Resource? A: Solid biomass B: Wind turbine C: Geothermal energy Advantage is Plantations can help restore degraded lands, what is Renewable Energy Resource? A: Solid biomass B: Wind turbine C: Geothermal energy Advantage is Plantations can help restore degraded lands, what is Disadvantage? A: Has potential to lead to deforestation B: an unknown storage system C: a negative net energy ratio Of the renewable energy resources listed in the preceding tables, which one do these rods utilize? A: liquid biofuel, B: Geothermal energy, C: Brazil’s motor Question9: By following RMI’s vision and shifting the United States’ fossil fuel dependency to energy efficiency and renewable energy, what can you expect to see in the future of the United States? Check all that apply. A: Industries that can produce 84% more, yet use 9%–13% less energy B: Stronger, more profitable businesses and, thus, a more prosperous economy C: A significantly cleaner and healthier environment Which of the following actions can Americans urge the United States government to take that may, in turn, assist in reaching RMI’s goals as presented in Reinventing Fire? A: Encourage programs that educate consumers about the benefits and risks of various energy sources. B: Get rid of renewable energy subsidies and, instead, provide more subsidies for use of fossil fuels. Question10: Associated Foreign Press, January 2012 BEIRUT, Lebanon—The collapse of a building in the Lebanese capital in which 27 people died has put the spotlight on the dismal state of run-down properties across the country that many say are “ticking time bombs.” The tragedy on Sunday saw a sixstory apartment block crumble to the ground within minutes, burying residents, many of them foreign labourers, who had no time to scramble to safety. Although there are no firm statistics, the streets of the capital are dotted with derelict buildings lined with cracks, missing balconies, and rusting grids, which stand in stark contrast to shiny, new high rises. “The problem of unsafe housing is not limited to Beirut—it’s spread throughout Lebanon,” said Rached Sarkis, a civil engineer and founder of the Lebanese Association of Seismic Hazard Mitigation. “Prior to 2005, buildings in Lebanon did not have to meet international standards, as the government had not passed a decree to that effect,” he told AFP. “Developers took advantage of the situation to maximize profit at the expense of public safety.” “Many buildings were also built prior to the 1971 construction law, which requires structural study before building,” said MP Mohammed Qabbani, head of the parliamentary committee for public works. Today, rent for a single room in Beirut runs around $500 per month while two- or three-bedroom apartments sell for a minimum of half a million dollars. “What do you tell a landlord who needs $100,000 to renovate his building but makes $5,000 annually in rent?” asked Qabbani. “And what do you tell families who say the $20,000 they’re being offered to leave their homes is insufficient for them to find a new place?” Which of the following appear to be responsible for the building collapse outlined in the article? Check all that apply. A: Poverty and economic conditions B: An earthquake C: Unsafe building codes The hazards discussed in the article can be categorized primarily as A: natural, B: cultural, C: lifestyle hazards. Which of the following statements accurately illustrate a step in risk assessment? Check all that apply. A: Drinking and driving influences the number of car accidents on holidays. B: The chance of contracting the AIDS virus from a single act of heterosexual intercourse with an infected partner is 1 in 500 if a condom is not used. C: Exercising three to four days per week increases cardiovascular health. Question11: Infectious diseases that are vector borne involve at least two organisms: a vector and a host. The vector is typically an insect such as a flea or a mosquito, and the host is a larger animal. A vector infects a host by biting it; from there, a host may infect another host. To infect a human, pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites, protozoa, or fungi) must be passed from the vector or host to a human. The following map illustrates incidents of a specific vector-borne disease, West Nile virus, between 1996 and 2004. West Nile fever is a symptom seen in individuals who are carrying the single-stranded RNA virus known as the West Nile virus (WNV). The virus originates in mosquitoes, which transmit it to humans or other animals. According to the map, the spatial distribution of WNV between 1996 and 2004 is more suggestive of A: a pandemic, B: an epidemic disease. From what you have read here and what you know, in general, about viral infections, which of the following is true about WNV? Check all that apply. A: The vector of WNV is the mosquito. B: WNV is not a transmissible disease. C: The pathogen that causes WNV depends on the living cells of its host to help it reproduce and spread in a population. Unlike transmissible diseases such as WNV, nontransmissible diseases are those illnesses that A: do not, B: do spread from person to person and are not caused by pathogens. Generally, what are some lifestyle choices that Americans can make to directly reverse the trend seen in these maps? Check all that apply. A: Opt for a more active lifestyle. B: Eat fewer processed foods. C: Get your vaccinations up to date Question12: According to the map, rank the following countries by the number of incidents of MDR-TB, from highest to lowest. (Peru, Kazakhstan, U.S) Write you answer:________ Of the two countries, A: India, B: Mexico had higher rates of TB infection from 1990 to 2010. For example, in 2010, India had almost A: 5 times less, B: 10 times less, C: 10 times more, D: 5 times more cases of TB per 100,000 people than Mexico. DOTS was implemented in India with success. Based on the graphs, it is reasonable to say that DOTS was implemented in India A: after, B: before 2000. This means that in 2005 approximately 3 people per 100,000 individuals were infected with both HIV and TB in Mexico. But how does this number compare to the population in India? Using the same preceding calculation methods, determine the highest number of people from India who were infected with both HIV and TB in 2005. A: 70 to 80 people per 100,000 individuals B: 5 to 10 people per 100,000 individuals C: 100 to 300 people per 100,000 individuals TB currently infects 9 million people per year and kills an estimated 1.4 million per year—or one death every 22 seconds, on average. How can local governments help slow the spread of this disease? Check all that apply. A: Increase the funding for screening and control programs B: Provide financial incentives for large drug companies to develop alternative drug treatments for patients C: Provide antibiotics for the people living in areas with high incidence of multidrug-resistant TB Question13: Humans are exposed to methylmercury almost entirely by eating contaminated fish and wildlife that are at the top of aquatic food chains. Exposure to methylmercury can wreak havoc on some of the major human body systems. Use the dropdown menus to complete the following table on the effects that methylmercury can have on human health. Effect of Methylmercury on Human Health is Will decrease the body’s ability to fight off pathogens, what is Human Body System Affected? A: Immune system B: Endocrine system Effect of Methylmercury on Human Health is As an HAA, can interfere with the work of natural hormones, what is Human Body System Affected? A: Immune system B: Endocrine system Human Body System Affected is Nervous system, what is Effect of Methylmercury on Human Health? A: May result in accelerated cognitive development, such as shorter memory. B: May result in delayed cognitive development, such as shorter memory. Each person can take precautions to decrease individual exposure to methylmercury, such as being mindful of where the food you eat fits in the food chain. On a larger scale, however, shifting human societies more toward a pollution prevention approach, which reduces or eliminates the production of pollutants, will be a more effective strategy when dealing with toxic chemicals than the currently dominant pollution cleanup approach, which involves cleaning up or diluting pollutants after they have been produced and released into the environment. Of the following actions in dealing with mercury, which is the best example of a pollution prevention approach? A: Collect and recycle batteries and other products that contain mercury B: Find less toxic substitutes that can be used in current mercury-based products C: Switch from renewable energy resources to coal Question14: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the five top toxic chemical substances that present the greatest hazard to human and environmental health. The remaining four substances are arsenic, lead, mercury, and vinyl chloride. A toxic chemical is characterized by which of the following? Check all that apply. A: Can cause death to humans B: Can cause temporary harm to animals C: Can cause permanent harm to animals Judging from this course of events, which of the following pathways can best explain the human illnesses that occurred between June and August? Assume that chickens are a farm crop. A: S to V B: GW to S C: C to H It is fairly common knowledge that certain toxic chemicals may lead to negative health effects, such as neurological disorders, immune system weakening, and deficient endocrine systems. Which of the following toxic substances may result in human fetal disorders? A: Carcinogen B: Teratogen C: Mutagen What can women do during their pregnancy to reduce the probability of birth defects due to this type of toxic substance? A?Decrease alcohol consumption B: Smoke cigarettes C: Increase exercise Until very recently, bisphenol A (BPA) was a common component of plastic-based products ranging from canned-food liners and storage containers to baby bottles. Initially, BPA was correlated with disruptions in hormone balances in humans. However, more scientific research has established links between BPA and nervous system disorders, breast cancer, diabetes, and obesity. BPA’s effects on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and children present the greatest concern according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH). BPA ingestion is of some concern in the case of infants and children because drinking cups and other food containers are frequently made of plastic. Warming food or liquids in these containers may increase the risk of ingestion. This can be avoided by noting that some, but not all, plastics that are marked with recycle codes 3 or 7 could be made with BPA. According to the summary, which of the following actions will help reduce the risk of BPA intake? Check all that apply. A: Stop drinking wine B: When possible, opt for glass, porcelain, or stainless steel containers, particularly for hot food or liquids C: Purchase plastic items with recycle codes 2 and 5, instead of items with recycle codes 3 and 7 Question15: That is, in this method, scientists measure the A: response, B: dose, C: drug, or amount of toxin that is consumed by an individual, and a A: does, B: response, C: toxin , or the resulting effects of these toxins on the individual, such as mortality. When enough individuals are tested in this method, the results of these studies are plotted on a graph, which can then inform the level of toxicity for the tested toxic chemical or, in some cases, biological agents. According to the results of the study, at what exposure will 50% of the rats experience stillbirth? A: 10? B: 10? C: 10¹ Like other methods used to get information about the harmful effects of chemicals on human health, measuring dose-response curves has its limitations and benefits. What are the limitations to these types of studies? Check all that apply. A: These experiments tend to use large doses, so the impact of trace amounts of toxins over longer periods of time are less definitive. B: Outside of the laboratory, toxic chemicals typically interact with other chemicals in the environment. Conversely, what are the benefits to these types of studies? Check all that apply. A: They can quickly estimate the toxicity for a variety of chemicals. B: They are more reliable than case reports. Question16: To reduce exposure to toxins in the environment, people should be more aware of what types of toxins they are exposed to and then implement ways to either prevent or minimize this exposure. The following excerpt is from an article that raises awareness of the dangers of toxic chemicals present in car interiors. Read the excerpt and answer the question that follows. Toxic car interior rankings Since the average American spends more than 1.5 hours in a car every day, exposure to the hundreds of toxic chemicals inside vehicles can be a major source of indoor air pollution. Their internal air temperatures of up to 192°F and dash temperatures of up to 248°F can increase the concentration of volatile organic compounds and break other chemicals down into more toxic substances, the Ecology Center said. Ecology Center Research Director Jeff Gearhart said that these chemicals are not regulated, so car buyers have no way of knowing what dangers they or their employees face. Based on the article, which of the following is true? Check all that apply. A: Car buyers cannot control how much time they spend in their car. B: Car buyers who live in warm climates are more likely to inhale toxic substances. C: Because the chemicals are unregulated, toxicity levels are probably unknown. Which of the following actions by the car industry will most effectively minimize consumer exposure to the toxic chemicals present in car interiors? A: Take the initiative to show that all the chemicals they use are deemed safe by EPA standards. B: To save time and energy, wait until the EPA lists specific chemicals that should be banned from use. C: Discourage programs such as REACH. Question17: According to the graph, which of the following statements is true? A: Tobacco use is more than 10 times as likely to result in premature death than automobile accidents. B: More people die, prematurely, from infectious diseases than from alcohol use. C: Summed together, illegal drug use, homicides, and suicides cause more premature deaths than alcohol use. Acoording the picture, Tobacco use (smoking): A: 2, B: 1, C: 3 Acoording the picture, Driving: Write your answer: A: 2, B: 1, C: 3 Acoording the picture, Drinking alcohol: Write your answer: A: 2, B: 1, C: 3 Most people can take responsibility for avoiding many health hazards. Individuals can also make choices that might help to lessen health hazards for other people. Which of the following is not an action that you can take as an individual to help reduce health hazards? A: Tan out in the sun instead of going to tanning booths B: Find and use na

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