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Description UNFORMATTED ATTACHMENT PREVIEW rimr just as immense and oppressive? wonders'weil, despa ...

Description UNFORMATTED ATTACHMENT PREVIEW rimr just as immense and oppressive? wonders'weil, despairing of the "political illusion."The demise of industriali"ed commercial hfe is inevitable:Weil imag- for war en&nger human existence. If the scale of things is all wrong, what can right it?'what can overcome these enormities but countervailing forces that "monstrous nothing," as Kierkegaard termed it; war and the mobilization ed out. Facrory work dispirits and dumbs workers down;financial power brokering overwhelms enrrepreneurid ingenuiry; the sciences are unfathomable labyrinths; the popular press degrades language and stokes public opinion, against force, but the conditions for real thought and action are being crowd- and human individuals comes a &zzytng sense of unreality.Thought is for weil a human's "supreme digtity," and she trusts its power when trained "NorHrNc rs made to mant measure,,, warru SimoneWeil.The gigantic prevafu in twentieth-century economies, technologies, state bureaucracies, media, wars. with such disproporrion between glass-eyed collecrive powers tM0ilE wElL (1909-1943) ? speed and drivedess acrOss b? ussian COHununisn? ,and Marx Albert canus ea? y and Onduding a leader Of the Russ? an Marx in hgh regard,she was an th the wOrke? under capitalism, ken ? vhat Marx termed the real orga? zatiOnal prOpe? st fOcu? (the exp? pria? On of surPlus?value),and Private ?? OVedooks tO? much. class,exp10itadOn new cOnddOns the Map? Of p? ducdon under capital? p? FOundy ?ter the ter? ? ?F change.Wed charged that under these W? ught by industrial capitt? sm? The techn? 10gical and slderedwed the mOst incisive sOcial analyst since Marx, and her ldeas in the thOught of reCent French POst?Mandsts from JaCques E4ul tO nelius castOnads ful criic of Mal? ? (isin,R LeOn TrOtsky),and held Karl ciated widi variOus radcals ThOugh we? sympathized deeply? ? g ttfthe wreck remttns in dOubt. rnotOr?car iaunched at fu? ? ''? On? y the? ines a thoughts,but even ofthhkhg. ng irresponsi? mtt the elementt ofhunan e? stence;eve? tLng iS dSe? ?brium.There is serforms too vast and too complex a whole to be enbraced by one nllndi, : ? ????????? ? ?? ? ????? :?? ???? ? ? ? ? ??? ??????????!:? ??i?:? man thought.Present? day hfe is not org? ?zed on the scale ofau these thngsi it has been transPOrted into an altogether d? erent order of magnitude,as the human bod? human h? ,the year,the&? the avettge quickncss of hu? change the u? t ofrneasurement;but? om the concrete pomt ofview certain u? ts ofmeasurement are gi? cn and have hitherto remained in? riable,such as om not a Singe categOry,g? up or class of men that is altogether exempt? tl? s destrucuve d? equ? briunl)except Perhaps lor a Few isolated Patches of s? ween man?bodtt man?? nd md the ttgs whch atthe present ime con? ?l??? F??? 1? ?? ? 1? smpi(? ?,COrmpdon,slackness and,above au,(? zzmess.The reason for hearts and crushng spirits,a machne for manuFactu? l? ch has become a mache fbr al lnen in face of the soclal machne,? ? is near to losing au rne? ?ng,So obvious are the lmpotence and dstress terms? as oppressors and oppressed,the idea of classes? att that sort of Of subo? ?nadng thett achons to the? up to a bhnd cottecttv? ty,and never have rnen been less capable,not lasting sevcral cenmrieso Never has the m? ?dual been so completely modern civ? zation has assumed in our? ?at the end of a develop? to imagine an? hng mOre conttary to tt idealthan the form iSKETCH OF CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL LIFE" OP,FFSS? Ott A? D IrDEttV ? c? enterpr? se.Actual. ?anSParent. ? ? tt? a glass whch c? ases to be and rnOre cOttecive character,and the ? ? p it? COnnected Mttth the ?divldual,that whch con? and, as it were,anOnymOus, oFsclence ls ensured by neans OFsign Or? ? nany contained in PLases whose use ls stretched hem, On the Other hand,by al? nane? has led rnore than Once tO what the egort Of thOught to the life. and wi? ch is ca? ed bureaucra? mttht be catted a new idea,except that the JuSt the mech? sm Of ?gebrttc calculadOn thngs lmtate sta? s? cs, Ous machne, regula? Ons,repOrtt and c orga? za? ?n.Au hese bttnd whOse parts are rnen, ? vhOse gears cOnsist Of ? ?ng ? vhch relates P? ? ducuOn tO consumpdOn and gOverns the exchttge ofp? ducts ls rnoney.Fi? n? ? where the ttnc? On Of CO? o??natiOn and management is t? ?heav for the?d and int(??gence oF One man,lt is entrusted tO a cur? labOur,the thettdves the essendtt lttncdOns are machnes.The ? ngs which take upOn geb? c calculattOns. In the sphere Of beyOnd the rneattgs ? on he one hand,by wOrds or ready?made i? did thnk.The cOhetteness To the very extent tO ?? ?ch what ls systematic in contempOrary hfe es? capes the cOn? ol Of the? ?nd,its regulari? iS esta? Lshed by thngs whch consdtute the eqdvalent Of? vhat cottecttve thOught Would be ifthe cOttecav? S? managang,deciding,is beyOnd any ind? dual? capac? and becOmes tO a certaln extent cOttecttve ? StS in CO? O? ?na? ng, ? mpenettably obscure and general bOdy oFsOcial reladOns ? th One another,that it would to"y tO understand lts rnechanis14.Thus the sO? FactOrs,each Of? ??ch is any Sh?e human mind.As fOr the which are Far be? and ttrhermOre,ha? spheres,the men hand,an in? Somedttng tOO vast ttd tOO COmplex fOr any ? th the anal result.On the Other =40vements withOut un? social life are in charge Ofmatters dal anc? ?n mOst essen? atty never even occur tO ? ln whch are tangled up in ?fe,it depends on sO yond the cOmpass whO Occupy key pos? one rnan tO be a? e tO dustrial cOncern has become derstanding ther cOnnectiOn carry Out the necess? POnon and tO an ever greater extent they arrive at a fOrm labOur that ena? es then t? creasing p? m(?? ?dual as such a more and mOre inSittFicant place in it. Tech? cal prOgress and mass p? ducion reduce manual wOrkers l? Ore and more tO a passive rOle;in h? praCdc? ?fe takes On a more 3? appearance OFe? whOle. COnsequent? as they go On aCCumuladng,take On the mas,aFter the s? le Oftoo thck ne? v ? scOweries, that even the?d ofthe ? nventOr cannot embrace the e ?ture research? result depends on such a cOni specttc h? ?dual? but,save Wih Past discOveries and pOssl? eXcep? ons, the value Of any plex Set of interrela? Ons Perhaps fOr rare 1)I new resultt are ? ways, in fact,the wOrk Of 10ng ?m? nd tO an eve? ? ncreasing extent?cott? couec? ?t??Thus science has nOw been for sclencesi? the whOle fOrmed by sclence and its apphca? Onsi and,On the Other eVe? thing lS too? nttmatdy cOnnected for the? dnd tO be able rea? y tO par? al CPnC? ? ? Now everythng that the ind? du? becOmes pOWedess COn? ol ? s selzed upOn by the ? ???the whOle FOrmed by mathemadcs and the natur? ? Ofsuch pseudO?ideasis no more than that ofreladons beween dgns; lute,and it cannot be? WhCh Swa? ows them uP and Pms hem dOwn to a nore or less sewde task,when it ttech them,he material of work,to go through a cottecuvl? ? th the on,a great many men are forced,in order that thett hands inay come into conttct buy.And as big hdustty is a system of couective produc? the peasantt themselves are today to a large extent under ths obttgadOn to the maJoriv ofrnen cannot p? cure For th? ?elves the greater part of? vhat they consume save through he medlu=n ofsocie? and in remrn fOr money; mercy of the central authori?? As a result of the vast extension of exchange, sent.The power and concentratlon ofar=naments Place att human ttves at the come soi but it is hard to? gine how it cOuld go much farherthan at pre? ?vidual h favour ofthe cOnecivity is not,indeedi abs? the percep? on Ofre? ? is SOmethng ind? dual.The dsPOssession ofthe in? oles;this is because signs consitute the material of socin relations,whereas ly asin Hms Andersen?? le itt whch the scie? ?t and tt shadow exchanged ies Ofwhch the actualth? gs themselves conshmte Only the shadows,exact? knowledge,money and credtsymboL in econo? 4C l? ?,Play the part ofre? ? consists ln the Fact that si? ,WOrds and algeb? ?c formdas in the aeld of means fbr strengthettg orgamzaion.Anoher asPcct Of the same inversion ing a cottecttve actlv? ?,but the aci? ty of a grouP,whatever it may be,is a keePing mOney in cttuladono Lastt orga? adon is not a nems for exercis? ?at hey may Serve the machneso MOney does not prowide a conve? ent ?ethod for exchanghg p? duc?;itis he sde of goOds whch is a means for ? ? ??????? ? ?? ??ng.The sciendst does nOt use science in order to manage to see more ?? Isocie? ? here becomes tOtal or nearly so,and extends tO nearly every? and ends? an inversion whch is tO a certain extent the law of every oppres? ?zed in these huge rnech?4S? ?.The invertton ofthe reladOn beween rneans whon time introduces h successi? waves to social L? ?nly possess soci? valuc and erecittness on cottion that they becOme in the? ?rn crystal? ?ought is.The ettOrts,the labOurs,the invendons ofbe? 18S Ofaesh and bloOd that is so to SuCh an extent that we have aLnOst lost the nOdOn of what real ual,is suboEhnated to vast xnechanisms wI? ch cvsttLze cOnecttve? ?,and place ofleaders.Thus,in au spheres,thOught,the prerogadve of the indvid? Funcdons.And bureaucraic machnes ahOst reach the point of ttng the v? me of estabLsl? ng harmo? ous relauons bemeen the vatious economc As for money,econoHusts have 10ng been convtted that it possesses the formadons one seesin mo? on? picturc cartoons.Automaic? chnesseem to orer the modd for the inteLgent,??th? ,doctte and conscienttous worker. sults into laws,Mdia(? sconcerdng ease rettundng one ofthe fantasdc trans? ngebra is onen ma? enously apt to transform a series ofexpermental re? ends up by rendering the p? speri? Ofindustties independent,tO extent,ortheir gOOd funciO? ngithe reason being that the capital in? b? ught abOut by the actual p? ductiOn oF each Of them cOuntt less less as compared with the cOnstant supply oftesh capital.In shOrt,in an success has become sOmeti? ng ahOst arbira? ;it Seems more and tO be the work Ofpure chance;and as it consituted the sole rule in an of human acttvi? ,Our ci? iza? On is invaded by an ever? increasing and ruined by a waste in P? POr? On tO that dsOrden Ths transfO? is taking place at he very moment when the sOurces of prOat On the capitaLst economy formedy drew fOr i?p? d? gious development becoHung less and less plendful,and when the tech? ctt cOnddons Of are the? lselves imposing a rapidly decreasing tempo on the imprOve? ofindustrial equipment. So inany profound changes have been tattng place Arnost unbekno? vnst tO and yet?ve are ttving in a period when the very a? s ofthe sOcttd system is were in P? ceSS Ofhechng OveiThroughOut the rise Ofthe industtial sys? soclal htt found itser Orlented in the d? ?ctlOn oF cOnstruction.The in? equipment of the planet was the supreme batde? grOund on? /1? ch fOr pOwer was waged.To increase the size of an underttng than? compeitors,and hat by means ofi? own resOurcesttuch was, spea? g,the aim and otteCt Of ecOnomc acd? ?.Saving was the ? of economc hfe,cOnsumption was restricted as much as pOssible,nOt that of the wOrkers,but alsO that of the capi? Lsts themselves,and,in general,au expenditure cOnnected? ?th Other thngs than industrial equip? lment.The supreme mttsion of goverttments was to preserve peace at hOme and abrOad.The bourgeoisie were under the inPreSSiOn that ??ss?? te of thngs would go On indea? tett fOr the greater happiness ofhuHla? ?;but it could not go on indea? tely in ths way.Nowadays,the s,uggle for power, wvtte preserving to a certain extent the same outtaH? appearance,has entire? ly changed in character.The forrttda? e increase in the part cap? ?plant plays in undertattngs,if compared wttda that of? ?ng labour,the rapid decrease in the rate OFprolit whch has resulted,the ever? increasing amount ofOverhead expenses,waste,leaka?oe,the lack Of any rettaing device fOr attus? ng the various branches OF prOducdOn to one another? everythng prevents social aCd? ? frOm sdtt ha? ntt aS? PiVot the deve10pment of the undertattng by mr? ng p? att into capital.It seerrxs as though the econOrmc struggle has ccased to be a form ofcompedtton in order tO become a sort of? ??It is no longer sO much a quesdOn of p? pedy orgamzlng the wOrk as oFsqueezing Out the greatest possible amount of atta? e capital scattered about in socie? by marketing shares,and then oF squeezing out the greatest possible amount Ofmoney I? om evetthere by markeing p? duc6,everythng takes place in the reah ofopi? ?n,and almost oFac? On,by rneans OfsPecttdOn and Pub? ?Ci??Since credtis the key to au econ? =ruc success,saving is replaced by the ? ? Ofthe cen,al power.It seerFXS ttrly dear that contempOrary hu? the State power comes to exer? approach it more or less h the course of the having gonc back to a al and One wOndes,incide?,hoW Marx could m p? duchg be? ??ppressed and oppressors? ? accoEdng tO its own? ge.Eve? ?vhere, ur? ows hm each week a sum of money whch gives hm the magic PoWer OFc¨ underttting keeps hm endaved for long hours every day and a? ladon,the unpredctable rises and faus in currencies and PriCes have got count??k into the h? it ofmr? ng their eyes towards the towns.The work? er has not the feding ofear? ng hsh? ng as a P? duce? ?is mcrely that the wOrks the land has to a large extent been obttteHlted since the taste lor specu? deep? seated bond bcween the land? vhch sustaHtt the man and the rnan? vho ?om outside,the bchef in? urades.Even in the country,the Fedhg of a b? ?,and has developed pass? ?,neglect,the habit of expecung every? ?g eccitts has ktted the? ettng for sOund wOrttmans? ,the sense of responsi? ? in Va? ing degrees,the impossib? ? of rela? ng what one gives to what one it? ings capable of bu? ang up a human socie? ,mOdels an those suttected tO and that a completely inhuman system,as ours is,farI? ? S precious ody in the eyes ofthose who cIFecdwcly possess quOte a Famous saylng,slavery degrades rnan to the point of rnattng h? n a regme ofslave? fanen under the blows ofthe siaves.The ttuth is that, have beheved that slavery codd produce I? ee meno Never yet in hstory every? asserdon that the r? gHne would produce its own grave(? ggers is cruel? is just day? dreamng.There is nothng on? vhch to basc even attempts. in a defensive or orensive ac? on against? ramy and m??rism he system th? ugh reforms Or revoluiOns,to hope tO and ? ? ne that tt cm switch the course ofhstov a10ng a dgerent ttack irnpossible rbr us to pre(? ct. smauer cottecm? des,w? set out? ?n a10ng a new ?ad whch itis Or less prin4? Ve level of existencc and to a social? ? dspersed into our ci??hzauon? ??l perishi and humanit? ?mcdo? ng ofthe econoHuc and social orga? zadon becomes matenatty chaos and destrucdon have reached the h? ?t beyond wI? ch the a tanhc consumpion of raw materials and capital eqdpment,a crazy ? of? vealth of a? ? ds that previous gencradons have bequcathed Arther increase conA? sion,waste and n4Sery.Wars tt bring in their ycars.This development w? ordy gitt dsorder a bureaucradc form, that au ofthem v"? it,short of upheavals sttn? ar to that of October 1917i but it seems ??formne ofthe Russim people;Other cOuntties wtt ody be able to love iti that liber? i? I? ch sway in an spheres,even,indeed above a? ,in that of thought. us with an ahost pettect example of such a system,for the is to say,towards a system h M? use the term wl? ch the nattonal soc? aLsts have ttkade Fashon? tends prettt wen evettwhere towards a to? ?arian for=1 0fsOcial or ? ????????? thc rich ed gttr? ng classes are pro? e? ?,they long since men amOn3 WhOm theidea cOuld give the ught Om thc Ou61de as a ng dasses. tOtALtarian''rettmes unPreCedented in histOry.It is Otten said system provldes nO ineans oFaction other than bs,you can spread c? stricken made md,by ons, zadon ofthought itselt the the most tragic impotence,they and themselves the mere playthntt ofbttnd and desires ofthose who are not at the conrollevers carv,when,reduced to chine itser sudden? y jams and aes into pieces.What weight can the hopes ? im? ng.Actua? ? such a rettme even manages considerably tO increase the general stupid? ,and there pose by force Ottcid dOctrines endrely devOid Of mea? though? in rc? ? itiS the lack Ofltte thOught whch makesit pOssibic Apart? oni sOme such co? operation,there is no means oFstopping the bhnd ?end Ofthe socitt machme tOwards an increashg cen? ??zaion,und the ma? medatett SuCh a fOrm or c? ?? peration is? mpossible to Hnagine,even in dreams,in a c? ihzahon that is based on compeddon,on stuttle,On war. centrttzatton of soclal hfei but the absurdiv of Such an ldea strlkes one lm? beween al,strong md weak,? ?th a view to accomphsI? ng a p? gress??de? The only possib? ? Of Sa"atiOn wodd he in a methodcal co? operation exPloitation oFstupi(? lr and hes as rneans ofproPaganda,and so on. araion bemeen thought and acdon,the FneCha? Ofthe relationstt between means md ends,contempt for the ind? dual,sep? they daimed to reForm Or abohsh,narnett bureaucraic orgamzadon,revers? have rCProduCed h futt vtttl? n therriselves att the? ?ces of the system? ??ch auence,such g? ups,wheher they went by the name of paries or u? ? e that the Oppressed have tricd to set up groups able to exercise a real in? erul means are oppressN? ,he non? powerfu? rneans reFriain inoperativc.Each those whO possess an these things.Thc same apphcs to everyth? grrhe pOW? ? vithout arHis,withOut the popuLr press you can do nothing agalnst ?e nd ofthese? ntt arouse so much as a? eam ofthOught,And? thout same token,absurd opinons???or even sensible views become deFormcd falsiaed in minds whch acccPt them unthttn? y;but yOu cannot with wtth their breakfast or their suppet a series of ready? ?7ith thc Popular press and the wireless,you can make a whole people bein? ,? ady to su? ? b to he most senseless fortt ofter? r and to with gratitude the most huH? haing lorms of? ranny,but not c? ? and ttr? raid war? ngs,yOu can create wretched masses of Pa? as rnasks,alr? rald shel? tcrror,oppression,but not hfe and ttberO? With?? form a dorFI? nant Class,With guns,aeroplanes,bo? ? stoWith he industrial convict prisons consituted by the big factories, can ody produce slaves and not? ee workers,sttt less workers who use them,these machnes crush and M? ? conttnue to crush as long as hr crusi? ng humaniv;whatever may be the intendons of those th? 1? ?rrhe present soci? inen would none the less be vanquished in advance by the natural pow? an?powerful.It is quite un? ? tO say,for example,that fascism an? h? ates tee must be thOught.where irradonal opittOns h? ld the placc Of ideas,fOrce is that FOrce is powedess tO Overcome thOugh? but fOr ths tO be true,there appearance of th? ughOut a whOle pOpulttiOno We must not be surprised,hereFOre,at the No? ?ng is easier, fOr that matter, than tO spread any myth whatsOever merely in the casc Ofmen in general,but alsO in that ofthe gover? one up to a certaln POint thanks tO that behef a10nei and this is true,not by? oss OFcOntact? vith rettty.Each class appcars? do? nant Feding evettWhere is that dzzy fear which is always b? nowhcre,so that that pOwer resides mysteriOusly in One of the classes tO w? ?ch he has nO cess,because hardly anybOdy understands that it resides up of rnysteries,Occult qutthdes,myths,id? ls and mOnstersi each One which,wh? e dl??ring considerably from one ciass tO another,is ttways As always happens,mental cOnfusiOn and Pas? ? leave free scope tO ? imaginadOno On att hands One is Obsessed by a representadOn OF sOcial siOn Oftl? s,but they are empty. the desd? es ofsOcie??;the harangues Ofthe Fascists cOuld alone day spttng up that they? ght,in certain circumstances,have tO take in rungs ofthc sOcid ladder,(br a class Of gover? ng.One wOuld iOOk in vain, frOm the hghest dOwn tO the they are by an avalttche Of inextricable the same passivi? as au the others,Owing to the Fact that,snOwed tude,mOney that oF a FavOur.The sO?ca? earned is sO hard tO that ? t appears as almost accidental,sO thatlabOur takes On the aspect OF ?no good expecting help to come aom men,and even were it other ideas,correct reaso? ng and sensble? ews on any wttde scale. parasites.Generaly intO the bargain,dOes nOt rnake theni any the less ing, the relation between wOrk dOne and mOney were you to(? spose ofthe best ofpubttc PlatFor? ?,and that is to(? IFuse ? Sites,and means at its disposal.On the other hand,one thng is unpossible, whch it creates.Nowadaysj every attempt to turn men into brutes ands hOpe for the generadons that wdl have grown up under the cond? themselves,the Fact that they are invOluntary pa? ha? ng tO ? and bruttsh lbrcesP As lbr thOse? vho exercise ecOnOHuc Or pOttical ; to the very extent tO which thc ofthat number ties Of authOrity dcpr? ve Ofboth thOse whon the cares leisure and hber? O?? nd are gleams h ths inpenetta? e darkness, methOdcalthttng,t? perceive a mnds,no despOt in the wo?d can POsSlbly be enttghtened. Though a men may hOpe,by dint ofhOnest and our day Completely absurd.Faccd? vith ProbleH? variev and cOmplexi? are i? ?tely beyOnd the range Of great as of rlavour about it,is in eve,t?? dse under its sutteCdon. spcattng, the ldea Of enttgntened desPOdsm,whch has? ways had a ? thori? ? s exercised,it brings oppressing PeoPIc in the hOpc authority in Order tO hey w? be b? ught,even patendy unposs? ?e? r be i? dattd by the centtal authOri? atlng then,as Lc? n dld.It is quite ab? ity to dO goOd,? ??ch amOunts tO themselves,tO endeavour tO extend their ammated by gOOd intendOns,the mO? harried tt they are incessandy by? val ambi? Ons and hOstde cannOt wOrk tO weaken thelr Own authOrity withOut cOnde?ng almOst certty tO being deprivcd ofit,The more they fed .Trandated by Arthur?? ? th an introduciOn by s and Joh Pettie lAnherst ?P? r? '? ?? ?? l,? 1989). Mnch,Peter stt? ??? ,,f ? ????Sr? ??9''rNew York:Cambridge U? ? Press, Press,1981). Whte,George Abbott,ed.Stt? ?ettFt r,,? ???? ,? ??? ??L? lAmhertt U? ?OfMass Press,1966) Rees,Richard.,? l? ? ? ? ? ,l? S?? ? ? ?? ?,P? ttr?:Fr(CarbOndalei Southern lhnois U? ? 1966). Pierce,Roy.C? ???,P? ?? F/?? ? ?P? ? 17? ?,1? ??(New York:OxfOrd Untt Press, York:Ptttheon,1976). Perement,Simone.Stt? ? ? ,? F? ? ? ,? Tttnsiated by Raymond Rosenthal(New :? ? ??? ??P? ?? ??? ?,S??E? J?? ?? (Chapel H? :U???fNorth Ca? ttna Press,1991) Nttn,Thomas R.Sr Do? thy Stt? ?? /?:rlNewYork:? Unga? 1983) U? ? Press,1982) ? ? Frf ?? r,? ???? ? ??? ???? 7? ?? John? SI? ? F? rc??tedO? :? 71? nd Laurier (TOtOWa,NJ:Rowman and Littledeld,1988). John M S'? ??????,I(BOStOn:Twayne puttshers,1984) t:,? Robert?S!? ???? /?? ? ??? ?IF?? ? ? ?:F?(NewYork:Addson?Wesiey,1987). Mary G.B? ?????H? ? ?????? ??? ?P? ?? ? ?? ? ? ??? ???? ? ?? Larv.? 4???? L? ?/r/rd? ?? ?9? /? il? ??? ttrs? (NewYork:Roudedg? 1989) ,? ? ? ,,,? ? ?G? ,Tmnslated by Ettna Crauard lNewYork:Harper,1951). RIchard H.,ed.,? ?? ? ??? FrO? OPtt? ? c? r? ? (New York:Cambridge U? ? ComPany,1977) ,? ?? Stt? ???? R? ? Edtcd by Gcorge A.Pa? chas(NewYork:David Mc? of Massachusett Press,1973) 01'PttSS? ? ,? ?B??? /.Translated by Arthur W? U? ?Press,1968). ?? O? &? ? N?r? ? ? ??? C? ?.Edted by xchard Rees(London:Ox? /,? ? ??? ?? N9? ? /R? ??.Translated by Atthur RW? s(BOStOn:BeacOn Pre? ,1952). Price? ? n3ford,Pa:Pende H? ,195o r? 9 P? tt ? 7? ?? ??? ?F? ?.Translated by Mary McCar? ? ? ft,??s? ?P? Fbs? P? /(Cambridge:Cambridge U? ?Press,1978).TttnSiated by Thibon(LondOn:I(oudedge,1952) G/? ,? ? :? ????G?? ? ?FTg ? ? ths situation is? ?y rettzed,it leaves a maNenous teedOm Of ? OCC — PHL 106-0G7 —Fall 2022— Dr. Peter Hudis Topics for FINAL 5 to 6-page paper Paper is due Wednesday, Dec. 14 at 8:00 pm Write a 5 to 6-page paper one of the following three questions. DO NOT WRITE ON MORE THAN ONE! All papers must be typed with standard margins (double spaced) in 12-point font. Upload your paper under “Assignments” in D2L. NO LATE PAPERS WILL BE ACCEPTED Question 1: Adam Smith and Karl Marx proceed from a shared premise, but arrive at radically different conclusions about capitalism. What is this premise, and how and why do they draw different conclusions from it? How does Marx specifically spell them out? In what way does Marx’s critique of various forms of alienation in his essay “Estranged Labor” speak to issues facing us today—especially those which we have experienced during the pandemic? In answering these questions, make sure to directly engage Smith and Marx’s actual texts. Question 2: How does Fanon explain the origin and persistence of anti-Black racism, and how does he propose combatting to it? Why does he adopt a psycho-social approach to race and racism, and what it does it have to do with the effort to overcome barriers to achieving mutual recognition? According to Fanon, what is needed to oppose and overcome racism? Does it require changes on an individual or social level, or both? What did you learn from Fanon’s discussion of race and racism that you may not have known before taking this class? Question 3: Simone Weil wrote, “automatic machines seem to offer the model for the intelligent, docile, and conscientious worker” to the point that “we have almost lost the notion of what real thought is.” What does she mean by this, and what evidence does she present for this? How might her concern with the possibility of losing “the notion of what real thought is” relate to Plato, Aristotle, Smith, Fanon, or Marx (pick only one of any of these thinkers). You must NOT look at, consult, or borrow from any outside source, whether a book, encyclopedia, or material on the web, nor obtain help from or borrow material from anyone else. The paper has to be by yourself alone and in your own words. If you quote from any of these thinkers, use the style for how to insert footnotes (with page references), found in “Paper Assignments” under “Content” in D2L. Any paper that contains material taken from any source other than the readings assigned for class earns an automatic failure. If you have any questions about the paper assignment, feel free to contact me, either via email at or text/phone at 312-399-8629, or see me during my office hours. Proper Citation of Papers Dr. Peter Hudis ALL papers must consist ENTIRELY of your own work. You must NOT consult, review, or use ANY outside source—whether from a website, the internet, an encyclopedia, or someone else’s paper. If you do so, it constitutes plagiarism and you will earn an automatic “F” for the paper. 1) ALL quotes that you use from the assigned readings (the ONLY ones you should be using for this paper) MUST be within quotation marks, to indicate these words are not yours but are by the author. Example: Aristotle calls this “a self-sufficient end.” 2) The FIRST time you quote from a text, you include a FOOTNOTE number at the end of the quote. The text of the footnote MUST provide a full citation to the text, giving the author, translator, publisher, date of publication and page number, at the bottom of the page (no endnotes please). The footnote should look as follows: 1) Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, trans. R Crisp (Cambridge University Press, 2011), p. 2. 3) You do NOT have to provide the full reference in a footnote the second, third, or fourth time to quote from the same text. You only need to use a footnote ONCE for each text cited. After that, all you need to do is add the page number in parentheses at the end of a sentence. Example: Aristotle calls this a “self-sufficient end” (p. 6). 4) If you are referring to 2 or more works that have been assigned for the class, you need a footnote for the first time you quote from each author, as outlined in point 2 above. The second, third, or fourth time you refer to an additional text, use the same format as in point 3, above, while including the author’s name. Example: Aristotle speaks of a “self-sufficient end” (Aristotle, p. 6) whereas Kant says “the only thing good without reservation is a good will” (Kant, p. 14). 5) So long as you follow the above format, there is no need to include a separate bibliography or reference page. 1 PHL 106-0G1 Fall 2022 – Dr. Peter Hudis Test No. 1, on Plato and Aristotle 1. In Plato’s Crito, how does Socrates respond to the argument that it is best to listen to the opinions of the majority of people? The opinions of the majority of people may be wrong and may be causing us harm if we listen to the majority. The majority opinion may be ignorant of the truth. Instead, we must listen to the opinion of the wise or the one with true knowledge (the truth) so that it may avoid us harm. 2. How does Socrates present the nature of Truth in Crito? Truth is in following what society has given us and following the laws of the city which has given birth to us, educated us, and raised us. We agreed to be governed by this city by living in it so we must agree to its laws. If we escape the city by choosing exile, we are going against the system that raised us. Even if we think the system has been unjust to us, we shouldn’t respond by being unjust to the system and its laws, because then there would be no difference between us or them. We should respect the system that has raised us and respect the decisions they make for us. Nobody will believe in the system if people start going against it and choosing exile instead. 3. In Plato’s Crito, Socrates reminds Crito of two principles that they both have long agreed on. What are these two principles? We should not be concerned about just living, but we should be concerned about living well. Living well includes that we should follow the advice of the wise so that we can avoid harm to ourselves. Also, it includes that we should be living justly. If something or someone causes us harm or injustice, we should not return the favor by causing harm or injustice. 2 4. What is Socrates’ view of the law? Does he think we must blindly follow laws? Socrates believed the laws of the government should be followed even if it may not lead to justice. We agreed to live by the laws of the system that raised us, educated us, and provided for us. This was the contract we signed to be able to live in that system and society. All of our conditions were fulfilled by this system so we should obey its laws no matter what. The court even gives us the option to choose exile from the system if we think there is injustice being done. However, after the trial is over and we agree to the decision made by the court and its system, if we go against that society by escaping their decision by running away, we are not being just to the system. Every other government or system that we then run to will remember that we did not honor the system that raised us. This dishonorable act will follow us everywhere we go. 5. According to Aristotle, what defines household management? A man must have the art of acquiring property and proper instruments in order to manage a household. Household management is the art of getting wealth and understanding that there is a limit to this and knowing how to use it and where to use it. The materials bought from that acquired wealth is learning to manage the household. The pursuit of unlimited wealth is not household management. 6. According to Aristotle, how is household management different from commerce or retail trade? Household management requires wealth-getting which is necessary and honorable. Retail trade is wealth-getting where men gain from one another and one example is using money itself to get more money which is through interest. In retail trade, the goal is to get more money and there is no limit to the art of wealth-getting. 3 7. What is the basic difference between material wealth and wealth that is measured in money? Material wealth is the desire to live well through bodily pleasures and obtaining property. Wealth measured in money is the desire to live only for the sake of accumulating more money and not living well. 8. What is Aristotle’s view of usury, and why does he have this view? Money was meant to be used for the purpose of exchange such as for buying goods. When money is used by itself in order to gain more money through usury, Aristotle viewed this as the worst form of exchange. Getting interest by lending money is not a form of exchange where a person is using money to acquire goods. 9. What kind or form of property ownership does Aristotle think is the best? Property ownership should be private but the use of it should be common. There will be less problems among the community when this method is followed. The man who owns his own property will feel good when he is able to say to a friend that he may use the property as well. He will feel like he is doing something good for another person in the community when he lets this other person use his property. If property ownership is common in a community, there will be no acts of liberality and there

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